Microbial Biotechnology
  Environmental Biotechnology
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458 Vol. 13 No. 4, Issue of July 15, 2010
© 2010 by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso -- Chile Received November 30, 2009 / Accepted March 13, 2010
DOI: 10.2225/vol13-issue4-fulltext-8

Isolation of purple nonsulfur bacteria for the removal of heavy metals and sodium from contaminated shrimp ponds

Saijai Panwichian
Department of Microbiology
Faculty of Science
Prince of Songkla University
Hat Yai 90112, Thailand 

Duangporn Kantachote*
Department of Microbiology
Faculty of Science and
National Center of Excellence for Environmental and
Hazardous Waste Management-Satellite Center
Prince of Songkla University
Hat Yai 90112, Thailand
E-mail: duangporn.k@psu.ac.th

Banjong Wittayaweerasak
Faculty of Environmental Management and
National Center of Excellence for Environmental and
Hazardous Waste Management-Satellite Center
Prince of Songkla University
 Hat Yai 90112, Thailand

Megharaj  Mallavarapu
Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation
University of South Australia
Mawson LakesBoulevard
Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia

*Corresponding author

Financial support: This research was supported by under grant from the program Strategic Scholarships for Frontier Research Network for the Ph.D. Program Thai Doctoral degree from the Office of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand. This work was also supported by a project number SCI520001S, Prince of Songkla University.

Keywords: bioremediation, heavy metals, purple nonsulfur bacteria, salinity, shrimp farming.


DW: dry weight
GM: glutamate-malate medium
HMs:  heavy metals
nm: nanometer
OD: optical density
PNB: purple nonsulfur bacteria
SLB: Songkhla Lake Basin

Abstract   Full Text

In order to determine whether waters used for the shrimp cultivation contained toxic levels of heavy metals (HMs) and sodium (Na), analysis was carried out on 31 shrimp ponds in areas of southern Thailand. Purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNB) were also isolated from the same ponds to investigate if they could be used for bioremediation of the above contaminants. The highest HMs concentrations of the sediment samples in mg/kg dry weight were found as follows: 0.75 cadmium (Cd), 62.63 lead (Pb), 34.60 copper (Cu) and 58.50 zinc (Zn). However, all sediment samples met Hong Kong standards for dredged sediment. In contrast, contamination of Cu (9-30 µg/L) and Zn (140-530 µg/L) exceeding the standard guidelines for marine aquatic animal set by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand, were found in 32 and 61% of water samples, respectively. Two metal resistant PNB isolates, NW16 and KMS24, were selected from the 120 PNB isolates obtained. Both isolates reduced the levels of HMs by up to 39% for Pb, 20% for Cu, 7% for Cd, 5% for Zn and 31% for Na from water that contained the highest levels of HMs found and 3% NaCl when cultured with either microaerobic-light or aerobic-dark conditions. The isolate NW16 removed a greater percentage of the HMs than the isolate KMS24, but the isolate KMS24 was able to survive better under a greater variety of environmental conditions. Both strains were therefore suitable to use for further investigating their abilities to remediate water contaminated with HMs and Na.

Supported by UNESCO / MIRCEN network