Allelic variation at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Vrn-B3 and Ppd-D1a loci of Pakistani spring wheat cultivars
Muhammad Iqbal*1 · Armghan Shahzad1 · Iftikhar Ahmed1
1Plant Biotechnology Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Financial support: Pakistan Agricultural Research Council.
Keywords: photoperiod, spring growth habit, Triticum aestivum, vernalization.
Flowering time in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is controlled by vernalization and photoperiod response, and earliness per se genes. The genetic basis of flowering time has not been investigated in Pakistani bread wheat. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the allelic composition at Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Vrn-B3 and Ppd-D1a loci of 59 Pakistani spring bread wheat cultivars. These cultivars, along with 4 isogenic lines for vernalization genes were characterized with previously reported DNA markers designed for detecting allelic variation at 4 Vrn (Vernalization) and 1 Ppd (Photoperiod) loci. Spring habit Vrn-A1a allele was found in 36% cultivars either alone or with spring habit Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 alleles. Two wheat cultivars had the dominant Vrn-A1c allele, whereas none of the cultivars had Vrn-A1b. Spring habit Vrn-B1 was the most frequent allele (64%) present either alone or with Vrn-A1a, Vrn-A1c and Vrn-D1. Spring habit Vrn-D1 was found in 61% cultivars. Vrn-D1 was singly found in 25% cultivars and along with Vrn-B1 in 29% cultivars. Dominant Vrn-B3 was absent in all cultivars studied. All cultivars except Era had the photoperiod insensitive allele Ppd-D1a. We did not find any association between the flowering time and Vrn allelic composition of the studied cultivars. This indicated that the partial vernalization requirement of cultivars with Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 alleles is probably fulfilled during Pakistani growing season. Earliness per se and the photoperiod sensitive loci other than Ppd-D1 need to be investigated to further understand the genetic basis of flowering time in Pakistani wheat.